This episode explores the complex and contradictory relationship between liberalism and illiberalism in a historical framework. It speaks to several key questions about the emergence of illiberal practices today: What is the nature of the illiberal challenge to an understanding of liberalism as individual freedom? Is there a natural affinity between liberalism and democracy? How do populist illiberal trends exploit the weaknesses of liberal constitutional regimes? And from where do threats to liberal principles in universities emerge?