Caregiver refers to anyone responsible for any form of caring for dependents, whether children, elderly or disabled.
Direct discrimination occurs where there is an intent to discriminate based on a protected ground or perception of a protected ground. Intent may be inferred from the circumstances, such as when one person is treated less favorably than another ('comparator') is, has been, or would be treated in a comparable situation, based on any of the protected grounds. A comparator is a person in materially similar circumstances, with the main difference between the two persons being the 'protected ground'.
Example: An internship position is announced at CEU which states that due to the dangerous conditions (internship may require going to Syria) it will be for men only. This would be direct sex discrimination.
Indirect discrimination occurs where an apparently neutral provision, criterion or practice would put persons with protected characteristics at a particular disadvantage compared with other persons, unless that provision, criterion or practice is objectively justified by a legitimate aim and the means of achieving that aim are appropriate and necessary. Discrimination can also occur by association if one person is treated less favorably because of his/her relation with a person with protected characteristics (e.g., parent of a disabled child).
Example: Continuing the internship example, instead of stating that it will be for men only, the job description simply provides that there is a minimum height requirement of 1.75m. The rule is formally neutral but statistics demonstrate that on average men are taller than women and therefore this puts women at a disadvantage compared to men.
Disability is a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, including but not limited to: caring for oneself, performing manual tasks, seeing, hearing, walking, standing, speaking, learning, reading, concentrating, thinking, communicating or working.
Harassment is the creation of an offensive, degrading or intimidating environment in which unwanted conduct related to a protected ground, because of its severity and/or persistence, is likely to interfere significantly with an individual's ability to participate in, or benefit from, their educational or working environment by negatively affecting the person physically or emotionally. Sexual harassment is one type of harassment. Harassment and sexual harassment are further defined in the CEU Policy on Harassment, Article 7.1
Example: harassment cases around the globe in the university context:
Poitiers harrasment case (in French)
Positive and affirmative action refer respectively to a range of measures taken to actively encourage individuals from under-represented groups to apply or participate in University activities as well as to procedures and policies designed to eliminate unlawful discrimination and denial of equal opportunity to applicants, employees, students or visitors, to remedy the results of such prior discrimination and/or denial of equal opportunity, and prevent such discrimination and/or denial of equal opportunity in the future.
Example: CEU´s Roma Graduate Preparation Program is designed to prepare outstanding students from the Roma communities who, due to historical social exclusion and racial discrimination might not have had the same opportunities as other students in preparing for graduate school education. In this way equaling the playing field among Roma and non-Roma students applications, it levels the educational chances rather than constituting direct discrimination.
Protected grounds include race, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, skin color, religion, belief or non-belief, nationality, ethnic or national origin, mother tongue, age, disability, genetic information, state of health, marital or civil partnership status, parental status, social and economic status, political or other opinion, ideological conviction, employment status (including employment relationship and other relationship aimed at work), the membership of an organization representing employees' interests, trade-union membership or any other characteristics, whether actual, perceptive or associative, which are protected by law.
Retribution takes place where one person is treated less favorably because he/she has asserted a right protected by this policy, called attention to the violation of part of the policy, or helped someone else to do so, or is suspected of having done so or of intending to do so, and is sometimes also referred to as "retaliatory conduct."
Example: After filling a complaint against a faculty member for harassment or discrimination, a student receives lower grades from such person or even other members of faculty.
Reasonable accommodation means necessary and appropriate modification and adjustment to the work or study environment, or the way things usually are done, that enables a qualified individual with a disability to enjoy an equal employment or study opportunity or exercise on an equal basis with others all human rights and fundamental freedoms, and which does not impose a disproportionate or undue burden on CEU.
Example: Imagine a CEU building has three steps to get into the building. This effectively prevents students in wheelchairs from accessing the building. It would be reasonable accommodation to ask CEU to build an access ramp.