Implementing an effective response to climate change is a tremendous challenge, especially when dealing with stringent objectives such as those compatible with the 2°C target. Such a transformation would require a fundamental restructuring of the way energy and land are managed, which would not be costless and would require unparalleled policy commitment and coordination. Putting a climate strategy into action will require the involvement of all the major economies, which account for most of the emissions and host the largest mitigation capacity. Research can highlight a series of critical questions which are especially relevant for climate policy making and which will be the cornerstone of the LIMITS project: (1) What is the economic, technical and political feasibility of attaining stringent climate policies? (2) How can we jump start investments and innovation into clean energy technologies? (3) What is the role of policies in promoting mitigation and adaptation, recognizing the diversity of regional and national interests? (4) What is the role of technologies and their advancements to meet the change in energy infrastructure?