When thinking of Hollywood during the early Cold War, Bond films and blacklists come to mind more readily than the U.S.-Soviet Cultural Exchange Agreement. Yet, these biannual agreements included provisions for both film trade and cinematic collaborations. The potential of such film co-productions are the focus of CEU History Associate Professor Marsha Siefert's new book chapter about cultural diplomacy during the Cold War.
In 1991, the European Court of Justice ruled in favor of a French factory where women worked night shifts. While the employer had violated the legal ban on night work for women, the Court followed his argument that the ban amounted to gender discrimination. As a result, the countries of the European Union had to abolish gender-specific night work prohibition, and the majority did so by in essence removing night work restrictions for women.